Die IQ- Falle. Intelligenz, Sozialstruktur und Politik.
von Volkmar Weiss
Die demographische Zeitenwende.
von Herwig Birg
Die deformierte Gesellschaft.
von Meinhard Miegel
Islamische Zuwanderung. Die gescheiterte Integration. von Bassam Tibi
The Gypsy Persecution 1933-1945 and
The paper deals with five questions: What was before the persecution, what was the motive, whom did it concern, how many victims had been there, and who is representing the Gypsies in
put an end to the police „control of Gypsy disorder“ 1), started about 1900 and strengthened since 1926. In
The race policy
of the National Socialist Party had allowed the Gypsies a subordinate part
only. The Nuremberg Race Laws of September 1935 do not even mention them, they were interpreted into the law later on by
commentators. It was only by the Gypsy Basic Degree (Zigeunergrunderlaß) of
According to their crossbreeding with partners of the majority of the population Ritter differentiated five categories from all-Gypsy to Gorgios. His scheme only seems to be in accordance with the Nuremberg Racial Laws, in fact it was opposite to them as the genuine Gypsies are the good ones, the Arians the bad ones. Ritter’s classification could not coincide with the regime’s race ideology. Independently from these investigations all Gypsies were gradually examined by anthropologists. Their American colleague Creel, who had been occupied with their scientific inheritance, informed the Stuttgart Persecutors Office that they had only made the usual measurements and that were no indication that they had undertaken so-called racial hygienics and criminal biological researches 6).
On how the state should handle Gypsies Ritter followed Bader’s ideas. Sterilization should be decided by the Hereditary Health Courts and be based on expertise which „can only be made by medical specialists and only following profound clinical examination and sufficient observation“. In 1944 Ritter’s closest colleague, Eva JUSTIN, supported in her dissertation 7) materials for a new law dealing with asocial people but „not to be seen under the aspect of racial policy“.
Ritter fell far away from the Nazi Party and its race scientists. Even when he was no longer able to pay for the extensive genealogical researches he never asked any of the party agencies for money. The Reich Criminal Police Department 8)
which was interested in his study had plenty of means but the budget did not
allow a transfer to Ritter’s institute. Ritter now was personally instructed to
report on those expert opinions which would meet Himmler’s
instruction of July 1938 to finally determine by scientific expertise whether
the persons registered by criminal police were Gypsies, Gypsy-halfcasts or other persons roaming around in the manner of
Gypsies. (Ritter gave the fee to his institute.) The anthropologist Dr. Würth assured repeatedly and definitely that the Race
Expertise were exclusively made for this purpose 9).
Logically their content was poor exempt for personnel data and the place where
the experimentees had lived while the genealogy was
made, they in most cases merely named the category of his descent recording the
five scale system. Ritter did not even know the present residence. As Dr. Würth further reported, it was the office personnel which
choose the dates of the genealogies and mostly dispatched the simple forms with
Ritter’s facsimile stamp. Not any of the authors occupied with the Race
Expertise discussed the small printed footnote in its form. In it Ritter
declares his genealogical archive to be layed out on
demand of the Reich Board of People’s Health Service, a semi-official committee
founded in the Twenties evidently to proof that it was not a Nazi race
arrangement. There is no evidence that the Race Expertise were drawn up to
register Gypsies for deportation. As in 1940, also in 1943 the criminal police
registered Gypsies according to their affiliation to their ethnic association.
For this purpose their every day experience was probably more realistic than
Ritter’s analyses. In cases of doubt they may have considered his diagnoses to
exclude Gorgios from deportation 10). In
As far as it
could be judged today, race did not play an important role for deportation 10a).
The exemption of the nomadic marginal groups indicates that it concerned the
Gypsies as a people. For the top of the regime it was not a matter of race but
rather of criminality. Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, than the most important man after Hitler, tried to
hinder Himmler to differentiate deportation as a matter of race. On
The occupation of
1943, the remaining German Gypsies were transferred to the Gypsy camp, part of
Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp where at first
they lived under conditions privileged in the eyes of the other prisoners.
However, by and by they lost their priority and died because of hunger and
epidemics. After those capable of work had been transferred to hard labour camps the remaining ones were killed mostly in
August 1944 14). Of the 21 000 Gypsies registered Gypsy Prisoners
almost 12 000 died, not including 2897 incapable of work murdered in August
1944 as well as 1 700 persons coming from Bialystok,
who had not been registered, killed immedially because some of them were suffering from typhus. Neither all of the working prisoners transferred to other camps survived. Taken all together, of the Gypsies transferred to
It is known that
in Poland Gypsies could lead their traditional way of life even during the war 17). Within the area of occupied
This summary disproofs the willfully estimated number of „500 000 or more“ victims by KENRICK and PUXON in 1972 19). The addition of the numbers given by them for the different countries already proves them to be unreliable because they amount to less than half of the 500 000 claimed. There were probably 30 000, perhaps maximal 50 000, innocent persons who lost their life, about two third of the German Gypsies and two percent of the European ones.
deportation with all the victims involved was an offence against humanity, yet
to murder them had not been planned, not even the wide spread deaths at
Auschwitz. When the regime was done up with its means they were the most feable ones, the internees of all kinds who had to suffer by the shortage. The fact that the already in 1940 from
It was in 1948 that persecutees tried to get even with their tormentors by bringing a charge against Ritter 20), claiming that he had physically maltreated Gypsies. Ritter could prove that all witnesses belonged to the Rose clan 21), while Gypsies from other families testified correct treatment. The proceeding was discontinued, the defamation was not revenged. It was an act of vengeance to something that happened in 1938. The Rose clan, separated within the Sinti because of Jewish ancestors, had requested Ritter through a lawyer to stop researching its families because they were not Gypsies 22). Rifler refused and the members of the Rose clan, who did not want to be Gypsies, felt insulted. After 1945 they called themselves Jews and in 1955 Oskar Rose, father of Roman Rose, requested an anthropological expertise to testify that he was no Gypsy 23).
During the years to follow private persons sued Ritter and Justin. Though the inquiries found both innocent they insisted on their reproaches which, beginning in 1979, were publicized by organizations we now have to turn to. But at first a remark by COHN: „I know of no authenticated case genuine Gypsy allegiance to political or religious causes“ 24). His verdict has been confirmed once more by the „Sinti and Roma Civic Rights Movement“, an imaginary undertaking devised by Tilman Zülch, founder and head of the Society for Threaded Peoples who, since 1970, has been trying to find ways to make Gypsies politically-minded as he understands it. To achieve this he joined Grattan Puxon and Norbert Herzog in 1978.
Puxon, a desperate agitator, in Great Britain estimated
communist, suspended as Secretary General of the World Romani
Congress because of embezzling contributions of the world Church Council 25),
became Zülch’s adviser for Gypsy affairs. Norbert
Herzog, on the other hand, was an illegitimate stepbrother of Romani Rose. His mother, worker in a printing office, had
brought him up as Gorgio. During his education as administrative employee he became influenced by a communist functionary and accompanied him to
It is evident
that it was Puxon who made the Rose family
representative of the German Gypsies experienced as he was after he had made Fred
Wood leader of the British Gypsies. By changing names Herzog made the Rose clan
27) the pretended representative of the Sinti,
lead from the beginning by the Austrian Fritz Greußing,
a Zülch assistant in the Society for Threatened
People. Responsible for the propaganda was Zülch 25) himself. It was he who activated the political left human and civil rights communities for the allegedly still persecuted and discriminated Gypsies. With full page advertisements he published a memorandum requesting from the Federal Republic of Germany - analogous to the payments made to
Politicians, dreaming of a Gypsy organization with representatives, now cheerfully welcomed the bold simulation of an autonomous representation. However, some day the Association of the German Sinti would have been forced to prove its claim for representation in a democratic manner. The agitators evaded this necessity by founding the Central Committee of Sinti and Roma the statue of which knows only corporate members: Regional sections of the Ass. of German Sinti as well as about twenty „family associations“ with rarely more members than there are presidents. In this way the democratic deficit was concealed. Politicians and media took words at their face value, thereby conforming the position of Roman Rose as representative of the German Gypsies.
On May 4, 1982
the Sinto Hugo Franz opposed and declared in the name
of 2 000 family heads “that they have nothing to do with Romani
Rose, his Association of German Sinti and his ideas of civil rights work. On
The construct of
a spontaneous, autonomous representation had long ago broken up had it not been
generously supported by public spending of millions every year. The media
crouched. It allowed Zülch’s aggressive agitation to
forbid the use of the ethnic name of Gypsy and to mention only „Sinti and Roma“, by no means report something negative.
Publications concerning Gypsies are censored supported by menaces 30).
Volumes could be filled by listing the malicious practices of the agitators and
their adventurous compains 31) but this is
hardly a matter of gypsyology. An anti-racially
dressed pact by politicians and media, feeling obliged to follow political
correctness, protects the „Sinti and Roma“ cheat against public criticism: A masterpiece of
Gypsy Police Station in
the Prussian Instruction to Control Gypsy Nuisance was issued in 1902. Both had been caused by an increase of offences due to economical compulsion: Natural rise of the Sinti and (illegal) immigration of Roma met with substitution of traditional Gypsy products by machinemade merchandise.
2) Bader, J.: Kriminalistische Monatsblätter, 1935, pp. 265-268
3) The jurist Bader, no racist, was police expert, head of the Karlsruhe Gypsy Reports Agency.
4) The expertises are: Buchheim, H.: Die Zigeunerdeportation im Mai 1940. Gutachten des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte. München 1958, and Döring, H.J.: Die Motive der Zigeunerdeportation im Mai 1940. Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte, October 1959
5) „Race Hygiene“, a synonym to Eugenics created around 1890 by Alfred Ploetz was preferred by National-Socialists, but it had nothing to do with „race“ in their understanding.
6) Preliminary proceedings against the anthropologist Professor Sophie Ehrhardt. Staatsanwaltschaft Stuttgart (19) Js. 921/81.
7) Justin, E.: Lebensschicksale artfremd erzogener
Zigeunerkinder und ihrer Nachkommen.
8) Artur Nebe, President of the Reich Criminal Headquarters, was executed due to
having participated in the uprising against Hitler on
9) Being anthropologist, Dr. Würth had not been occupied with the construction of „race expertises“. Therefore his informations could not be classified as protecting defense. Though being soldier since 1941 he could once in a while visit the institute.
10) Expert opinions about Jenische (same as tinkers) were labeled „non-Gypsies“.
12) Discussion at Himmler’s headquarters (Reichssicherheitshauptamt)
13) Described in: H. Arnold: Zigeunerdeportation 1940. - To be published in ,,Pfälzer Heimat“, 2003.
14) At least two of the
three killing campains were ordered by the camp
commander Höss without instruction from
15) In 1941/42 „task
forces“ killed 520 000 persons in the East, nine tenth
of them Jews, the other 50 000 mostly persons said to follow „efforts hostile
to State and Reich. As the Great Sowjet Encyclopedia
from 1978 (\/ol. 28, col. 1809) speaks of „about 20 thousend Gypsies... exterminated... during World War II in
16) Karsai, László: Ciganykérdés Magyarorszagcn 1944-1945. „Regio“, 1991/I., pp. 124-143. - The renown Hungarian Gypsy expert Jozef Vekerdi estimates about one hundred. (Letter from March 2000.)
17) Döring, H.J. (cited in footnote 4 above) p. 164, footnote 34.
17a) Kaszyga, Piotre: Die Morde an Sinti und Roma im Generalgouvernement 1939-1945. Contribution to: Dlugoborski, Waclaw (editor): Sinti und Ronia im KL Auschwitz-Birkenau. Oswiecim (Staatliches Museum) 1998.
18) The Trial against Marshal Antonescu. Documents II. Editura nova. Bucaresti 1997, p. 176. - Documents concerning the deportation: State Archives Bucaresti IGJ 126, 201, 203/1942 and DGP 187/1942
D. and Grattan Puxon: The
Destiny of Europe’s Gypsies.
21) Clan families: Adler, Bamberger, Rose, Strauß.
22) Dr. Würth witnessed this discussion. He reports inter alia, that the lawyer pointed out that his client was protected by Otto Meiáner, head of Hitler’s Presidial Office, ranking Reichsminister.
23) For his letters see Bundesarchiv, ZSg. 142, Anhang 64 under the numeral 1.3123.
W.: The Gypsies.
25) Written information by the President of the British branch of the World Romani Union.
26) The rhetoric was
typical for remarks of the communist regime in
27) The former name was „Verband und Interessengemeinschaft rassisch Verfolgter nichtjüdischen Glaubens deutscher Staatsangehörigkeit“. From its foundation in 1958 until 1972 there is no entry in the register of the Mannheim District Court to be found, i.e. the association had not been active. Herzog, now Vice President, pushed its renaming in „Verband der Sinti in Deutschland“
28) Zülch is a first grade cousin of the tobacco magnate Jan Philipp Reemtsma.
29) Ritter died already in 1951.
30) The way this has been done has been described by J.S. Hohmann in his book: „bravo sinto“. Auf den Spuren eines verfolgten Buches. Fernwald 1986.
31) A selection
can be found
by Arnold, H.: Von der
Zigeunertragödie zur Politkomödie. Verlag Dr. Hans Blinn,
Vom Paläölithikum zum Neolithikum
Die Annahme, der Sozialtypus des Zigeuners sei genetisch bedingt, beruht auf vier Tatsachen:
1. Ihre Wirtschaftsweise als "Wildbeuter" haben die Zigeuner, seit sie in unseren Gesichtskreis getreten sind, zwar den jeweiligen Verhältnissen angepaßt, in ihren Grundzügen aber konstant bewahrt.
2. Soweit der Wortschatz ihrer Sprache indischen Ursprungs ist, beschränkt er sich auf die Bedürfnisse dieser Wirtschaftsform. Daraus ist zu schließen, daß sie dieser auch schon vor der Auswanderung gefolgt waren.
3. Die Nachkommen aus Ehen zwischen Zigeunern und Nichtzigeunern folgen hinsichtlich ihres ökonomischen Verhaltens in der F2-Generation je zur Hälfte den unterschiedlichen Wirtschaftsstilen der Großeltern.
4. Konstante Mischlingsgruppen (Jenische, Tinker, Mercheros etc.), die aus Verbindungen "echter Zigeuner" mit Menschen aus unterschiedlichen Völkern hervorgegangen sind, zeigen alle den nämlichen Typus des Wirtschaftens, nämlich den der Zigeuner.
Der Unterschied zur europäischen Mehrheitsbevölkerung könnte auf einer Erbanlage beruhen, die Wahrnehmung von "Zeit" beeinflußt, sie auf das "Hier und Jetzt" einengt, was dem Wildbeuter beim Finden seiner Nahrung in der Natur hilft. Der Verlust dieser Eigenschaft mußte Zukunft und Vergangenheit stärker bewußt machen, was die Mutanten zur planenden Wirtschaftsweise nötigen und befähigen konnte, mithin zur "neolithischen Revolution".
Diese Hypothesen wäre an Mischlingen von Wildbeuter-Völkern zu testen.
Arnold, H.: Fahrendes Volk: Randgruppen des Zigeunervolkes. Landau 1983, 2. Aufl., S. 148-152 und 201 sowie Fußnote 170
Darlington, C. D.: Die Entwicklung des Menschen und der Gesellschaft. Düsseldorf 1971, S. 25
Finger, O.: Studie an zwei asozialen Zigeunermischlingssippen. Gießen 1937
Schneider, E.: Niedergang und Aufstieg einer Vagantenfamilie. 1929 (Manuskript im Besitz von Pro Juventute in Zürich)
Vekerdi, J.: On the social history of Gypsies. Acta Orient. Hung. 35 (1981) Fasc. 2-3
Prof. Dr. Hermann ARNOLD, Richthofenstr. 9, D- 76829 Landau/Pfalz